India, also known as Bharat, is a Union of States. It is a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government. The Republic is governed in terms of the Constitution of India which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November, 1949 and came into force on 26th January, 1950. The Constitution provides for a Parliamentary form of government which is federal in structure with certain unitary features. The constitutional head of the Executive of the Union is the President. As per Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the council of the Parliament of the Union consists of the President and two Houses known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). Article 74(1) of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head to aid and advise the President, who shall exercise his/her functions in accordance to the advice. The real executive power is thus vested in the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head. Parts I to XXII Schedules 1 to 12
The One Hundred and Third Amendment of the Constitution of India, officially known as the Constitution (One Hundred and Third Amendment) Act, 2019, introduces 10% reservation for economically weaker sections of society for admission to Central Government-run educational institutions and private educational institutions (except for minority educational institutions), and for employment in Central Government jobs. The Amendment does not make such reservations mandatory in State Government-run educational institutions or State Government jobs. However, some states have chosen to implement the 10% reservation for economically weaker sections.
Currently, the quota can be availed by persons with an annual gross household income of up to ₹8 lakh (US$12,000). Families that own over 5 acres of agricultural land, a house over 1,000 square feet, a plot of over 100-yards in a notified municipal area or over a 200-yards plot in a non-notified municipal area cannot avail the reservation. Find out more
The bill of the Constitution (One Hundred and Second Amendment) Act, 2018 was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 5 April 2017 as the Constitution (One Hundred and Twenty-third Amendment) Bill, 2017. It was introduced by Thawar Chand Gehlot, Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment.
The bill was passed by the Lok Sabha on 10 April 2017.The bill was introduced in the Rajya Sabha the following day. The House adopted a motion to refer the Bill to a Standing Committee composed of 25 members and chaired by Bhupender Yadav. The Select Committee tabled its report before the Rajya Sabha on 19 July 2017.
The Rajya Sabha passed the Bill on 31 July 2017, after making one amendment. The Bill was transmitted back to the Lok Sabha for concurrence. However, the House did not adopt the amendment made by the Rajya Sabha and instead adopted alternate amendments to the Bill and passed it on 2 August 2018. The Bill, as passed by the Lok Sabha, was passed unanimously by the Rajya Sabha on 8 August 2018 receiving 156 ayes from all members present and voting.
The One Hundred and Twenty Second Amendment Bill of the Constitution of India, officially known as The Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016, introduced a national Goods and Services Tax in India from 1 July 2017.
The GST is a Value added Tax (VAT) proposed to be a comprehensive indirect tax levy on manufacture, sale and consumption of goods as well as services at the national level. It replaces all indirect taxes levied on goods and services by the Indian Central and state governments. It is aimed at being comprehensive for most goods and services.
An empowered union committee was set up by the Vajpayee administration in 2000 to streamline the GST model to be adopted and to develop the required back-end infrastructure that would be needed for its implementation.
In his budget speech on 28 February 2006, P. Chidambaram, the Finance Minister, announced the target date for implementation of GST to be 1 April 2010 and formed another empowered committee of State Finance Ministers to design the road map. The committee submitted its report to the government in April 2008 and released its First Discussion Paper on GST in India in 2009.Since the proposal involved reform/ restructuring of not only indirect taxes levied by the Central but also the States, the responsibility of preparing a Design and Road Map for the implementation of GST was assigned to the Empowered Committee of State Finance Ministers (EC). In April, 2008, the EC submitted a report, titled "A Model and Road map for Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India" containing broad recommendations about the structure and design of GST. In response to the report, the Department of Revenue made some suggestions to be incorporated in the design and structure of proposed GST bill. Based on inputs from GoI and States, The EC released its First Discussion Paper on Goods and Services Tax in India on 10 November 2009 with the objective of generating a debate and obtaining inputs from all stakeholders.
A dual GST module for the country has been proposed by the EC. This dual GST model has been accepted by centre. Under this model GST have two components viz. the Central GST to be levied and collected by the Centre and the State GST to be levied and collected by the respective States. Central Excise duty, additional excise duty, Service Tax, and additional duty of customs (equivalent to excise), State VAT, entertainment tax, taxes on lotteries, betting and gambling and entry tax (not levied by local bodies) would be subsumed within GST. Other taxes which will be subsumed with GST are Octroi, entry tax and luxury tax thus making it a single indirect tax in India
In order to take the GST related work further, a Joint Working Group consisting of officers from Central as well as State Government was constituted. This was further trifurcated into three Sub-Working Groups to work separately on draft legislation required for GST, process/forms to be followed in GST regime and IT infrastructure development needed for smooth functioning of proposed GST. In addition, an Empowered Group for development of IT Systems required for Goods and Services Tax regime has been set up under the chairmanship of Dr. Shruti Negi.. Find out more
Constitution (100th Amendment) Act 2015. Constitution (100th Amendment) Act 2015 ratified the land boundary agreement between India and Bangladesh. The actamended the 1st schedule of the constitution to exchange the disputed territories occupied by both the nations in accordance with the 1974 bilateral LBA. . Find Out More
National Judicial Appointments Commission (NJAC) was a proposed body which would have been responsible for the appointment and transfer of judges to the higher judiciary in India. The Commission was established by amending the Constitution of India through the ninety-ninth constitution amendment with the Constitution (Ninety-Ninth Amendment) Act, 2014 or 99th Constitutional Amendment Act-2014 passed by the Lok Sabha on 13 August 2014 and by the Rajya Sabha on 14 August 2014.The NJAC would have replaced the collegium system for the appointment of judges as invoked by the Supreme court via judicial fiat by a new system. Along with the Constitution Amendment Act, the National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014, was also passed by the Parliament of India to regulate the functions of the National Judicial Appointments Commission. The NJAC Bill and the Constitutional Amendment Bill, was ratified by 16 of the state legislatures in India, and subsequently assented by the President of India Pranab Mukherjee on 31 December 2014. The NJAC Act and the Constitutional Amendment Act came into force from 13 April 2015.
On 16 October 2015, the Constitution Bench of Supreme Court by 4:1 Majority upheld the collegium system and struck down the NJAC as unconstitutional after hearing the petitions filed by several persons and bodies with Supreme Court Advocates on Record Association (SCAoRA) being the first and lead petitioner. Justices J. S. Khehar, Madan Lokur, Kurian Joseph and Adarsh Kumar Goel had declared the 99th Amendment and NJAC Act unconstitutional while Justice Chelameswar upheld it. Find Out More
The Constitution (98th Amendment) Act, 2013: To empower the Governor of Karnataka to take steps to develop the Hyderabad-Karnataka Region. The Constitution (99th Amendment) Act, 2014: The amendment provides for the formation of a National Judicial Appointments Commission
Constitution (97th Amendment) Act, 2011. The Constitution (Ninety Seventh Amendment) Act 2011 relating to the co-operatives is aimed to encourage economic activities of cooperatives which in turn help progress of rural India . Added the words "or co-operative societies" after the word "or unions" in Article 19(l)(c) and insertion of article 43B i.e., Promotion of Co-operative Societies and added Part-IXB i.e., The Co-operative Societies.
The amendment objective is to encourage economic activities of cooperatives which in turn help progress of rural India. It is expected to not only ensure autonomous and democratic functioning of cooperatives, but also the accountability of the management to the members and other stakeholders
Constitution 96th Amendment Act, 2011. Constitution 96th Amendment Act, 2011 pertains to change of the entry of Oriya Language to Odiya in the 8th Schedule of Constitution of India.
The Ninety-fifth Amendment of the Constitution of India, officially known as The Constitution (Ninety-fifth Amendment) Act, 2009, extended the period of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and representation of the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies for another ten years, i.e. up to 26 January 2020.
Article 334 of the Constitution had originally required the reservation of elected seats to cease in 1960, but this was extended to 1970 by the 8th Amendment. The period of reservation was extended to 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 by the 23rd, 45th, 62nd and 79thAmendments respectively. The 95th Amendment extended the period of reservation to 2020.
The Ninety-fourth Amendment of the Constitution of India, officially known as The Constitution (Ninety-fourth Amendment) Act, 2006, made provisions for the appointment of a Minister in charge of tribal welfare in the states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand.
The bill of The Constitution (Ninety-fourth Amendment) Act, 2006 was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 1 March 2006 as the Constitution (One hundred-fifth Amendment) Bill, 2006. It was introduced by Shivraj Patil, then Minister of Home Affairs.
The bill was considered by the Lok Sabha on 17 May 2006 and passed on 22 May 2006. It was then passed by the Rajya Sabha on 22 May 2006. The bill received assent from then President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam on 12 June 2006, and came into force on the same date. It was notified in The Gazette of India on 13 June 2006 . Find Out More
The Supreme Court upheld the law providing a quota of 27 per cent for candidates belonging to the Other Backward Classes in Central higher educational institutions. But it directed the government to exclude the 'creamy layer' among the OBCs while implementing the law.